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A Framework for Conflict Analysis of Normative Texts Written in Controlled Natural Language

Journal article
Authors Krasimir Angelov
John J. Camilleri
Gerardo Schneider
Published in Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming
Volume 82
Issue 5-7
Pages 216–240
ISSN 1567-8326
Publication year 2013
Published at Department of Computer Science and Engineering (GU)
Pages 216–240
Language en
Keywords Normative texts, E-contracts, Legal contracts, Controlled natural language, CLAN, CL, Conflict analysis, Grammatical framework
Subject categories Computer science, Computational linguistics


In this paper we are concerned with the analysis of normative conflicts, or the detection of conflicting obligations, permissions and prohibitions in normative texts written in a Controlled Natural Language (CNL). For this we present AnaCon, a proof-of-concept system where normative texts written in CNL are automatically translated into the formal language CL using the Grammatical Framework (GF). Such CL expressions are then analysed for normative conflicts by the CLAN tool, which gives counter-examples in cases where conflicts are found. The framework also uses GF to give a CNL version of the counter-example, helping the user to identify the conflicts in the original text. We detail the application of AnaCon to two case studies and discuss the effectiveness of our approach.

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