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Clinical heterogeneity and molecular findings in five Polish patients with glycerol kinase deficiency: investigation of two splice site mutations with computerized splice junction analysis and Xp21 gene-specific mRNA analysis.

Journal article
Authors Christina Hellerud
Maciej Adamowicz
Dorota Jurkiewicz
Joanna Taybert
Jolanta Kubalska
Elzbieta Ciara
Ewa Popowska
James R Ellis
Sven Lindstedt
Ewa Pronicka
Published in Molecular genetics and metabolism
Volume 79
Issue 3
Pages 149-59
ISSN 1096-7192
Publication year 2003
Published at Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Dept of Clinical Chemistry/Transfusion Medicine
Pages 149-59
Language en
Keywords Adrenal Insufficiency, genetics, Chromosomes, Human, X, DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor, DNA Mutational Analysis, DNA Primers, chemistry, DNA-Binding Proteins, chemistry, deficiency, genetics, Gene Deletion, Glycerol, blood, urine, Glycerol Kinase, chemistry, deficiency, genetics, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Male, Molecular Sequence Data, Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne, genetics, Mutation, Poland, Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational, RNA, Messenger, genetics, metabolism, Receptors, Retinoic Acid, chemistry, deficiency, genetics, Repressor Proteins, chemistry, genetics, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, methods
Subject categories Molecular biology, Clinical chemistry, Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)


Five cases of glycerol kinase deficiency are presented with clinical, biochemical, and genetic results. Two had the glycerol kinase deficiency as part of an Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome-complex form-and three had an isolated form of the enzyme deficiency. In these we found two splice site mutations (IVS1+4A>G, IVS9-1G>T) and one insertion (1393_1394insG). In patients with the complex form, a deletion of the DAX1, GK genes and the distal part of the DMD gene was found. A computerized study was performed to predict the effects of the splice site mutations. It showed that the IVS9-1G>T mutation substantially altered and removed the wild-type site and enhanced a cryptic site seven nucleotides downstream, and that the IVS1+4A>G diminished the strength of the wild-type donor site from strong to leaky. To verify these predictions, we developed an RT-PCR system with gene-specific primers that exclusively amplifies the Xp21 glycerol kinase gene transcript. Identification of individuals at risk is motivated by a need to avoid delay in a correct diagnosis. For reliable identification of heterozygotes for isolated glycerol kinase deficiency, knowledge of the specific mutation in the proband is required. This is easily obtained with the RT-PCR analyses developed in this study.

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