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Formation of anisotropic ferromagnetic response in rutile (TiO2) implanted with cobalt ions

Journal article
Authors R.I. Khaibullin
S.Z. Ibragimov
L.R. Tagirov
Vladimir Popok
I.B. Khaibullin
Published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Volume 257
Issue 1-2
Pages 369-373
Publication year 2007
Published at Department of Physics (GU)
Pages 369-373
Language en
Keywords Magnetic semiconductors; Ion implantation; Spintronics
Subject categories Low energy physics, Magnetism


The (1 0 0)- and (0 0 1)-monocrystalline plates of rutile (TiO2) were implanted by 40 keV Co+ ions with fluences in wide range of 0.15–1.5 × 1017 ion/cm2 to study the development of ferromagnetism in the diamagnetic TiO2. With increase of fluence the implanted rutile plates reveal sequentially paramagnetic, superparamagnetic, weak ferromagnetic and, eventually, strong anisotropic ferromagnetic response at room temperature. The thermo-magnetic analysis shows that the ferromagnetic samples exhibit two magnetic transitions with temperatures of the ferromagnetic ordering TC1 not, vert, similar 700 K and TC2 not, vert, similar 850 K, correspondingly. Heating of the samples in air strongly suppresses the ferromagnetic phases if the temperature of heating exceeds the corresponding transition temperature. Subsequent high-vacuum annealing restores only the low-temperature ferromagnetic phase. The origin of the two magnetic phases and anisotropy of the ferromagnetism in the Co-implanted rutile are discussed in the model of two cobalt-rich layers with different concentration and valence states of the implanted cobalt.

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