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Application of a FIGAERO ToF CIMS for on-line characterization of real-world fresh and aged particle emissions from buses

Journal article
Authors Michael Le Breton
Magda Psichoudaki
Mattias Hallquist
Ågot Watne
Anna Lutz
Åsa M. Hallquist
Published in Aerosol Science and Technology
Volume 53
Issue 3
Pages 244-259
ISSN 0278-6826
Publication year 2019
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 244-259
Language en
Keywords Matti Maricq
Subject categories Earth and Related Environmental Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Chemical energy engineering, Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Environmental chemistry, Climate Research, Other Chemistry Topics, Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Environmental Sciences


© 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. On-line chemical characterization of real-world particle emissions from 13 transit buses was performed using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO). In addition to the fresh emissions the emissions were artificially aged using a potential aerosol mass reactor (Go:PAM). The buses studied were running on different fuel types (diesel, compressed natural gas, and rapeseed methyl ester) and exhaust after-treatment systems (selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a three-way catalyst). When evaluating emissions from passing exhaust plumes using the FIGAERO ToF-CIMS, two technical features were highlighted from this work, the use of high mass calibrants and the factor enhancement method to be able to filter important compounds from mass spectra including hundreds of species. Here, acetate was used as the reagent ion to enable detection of highly oxygenated species in the exhaust particle emissions with potential high toxicity and/or secondary organic aerosol formation (SOA) potential. The acetate ionization scheme accounted for 4% to 46% of the total emitted particulate mass through identification of 61 species in the spectra. For aged emission the various fuel types provided overlapping species that could explain up to 19% of the aged emissions. This is hypothesized to come from the oxidation of engine lubrication oil, thus a common source for various fuels which was further supported by laboratory measurements. Specific markers from the SCR technology, such as urea oxidation products and further byproducts from hydrolysis were identified and attributed to reactions of isocyanic acid.

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