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Attosecond time-energy structure of X-ray free-electron laser pulses

Journal article
Authors N. Hartmann
G. Hartmann
R. Heider
M. S. Wagner
M. Ilchen
J. Buck
Anton Lindahl
C. Benko
J. Grünert
J. Krzywinski
J. Liu
A. A. Lutman
A. Marinelli
T. Maxwell
A. A. Miahnahri
S. P. Moeller
M. Planas
J. Robinson
A. K. Kazansky
N. M. Kabachnik
J. Viefhaus
T. Feurer
R. Kienberger
R. N. Coffee
W. Helml
Published in Nature Photonics
Volume 12
Issue 4
Pages 215-220
ISSN 1749-4885
Publication year 2018
Published at Department of Physics (GU)
Pages 215-220
Language en
Keywords Angular distribution, Electric fields, Free electron lasers, Laser pulses, Light sources, Modulation, Optical pumping, Photoelectrons, Photons, Pumping (laser), X rays, Attosecond resolution, Circularly polarized, Instantaneous frequency, Ionization continuum, Linac Coherent Light Source, Photoelectron energy, Self-amplified spontaneous emission, X-ray free electron lasers, Electrons
Subject categories Other electrical engineering, electronics and photonics, Electrophysics, Physical Sciences


The time-energy information of ultrashort X-ray free-electron laser pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source is measured with attosecond resolution via angular streaking of neon 1s photoelectrons. The X-ray pulses promote electrons from the neon core level into an ionization continuum, where they are dressed with the electric field of a circularly polarized infrared laser. This induces characteristic modulations of the resulting photoelectron energy and angular distribution. From these modulations we recover the single-shot attosecond intensity structure and chirp of arbitrary X-ray pulses based on self-amplified spontaneous emission, which have eluded direct measurement so far. We characterize individual attosecond pulses, including their instantaneous frequency, and identify double pulses with well-defined delays and spectral properties, thus paving the way for X-ray pump/X-ray probe attosecond free-electron laser science. © 2018 The Author(s).

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