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Psychiatric symptoms in men with hypospadias - preliminary results of a cross-sectional cohort study

Journal article
Authors L. Ortqvist
H. Engberg
A. Strandqvist
A. Nordenstrom
Gundela Holmdahl
A. Nordenskjold
L. Frisen
Published in Acta Paediatrica
Volume 108
Issue 6
Pages 1156-1162
ISSN 0803-5253
Publication year 2019
Published at
Pages 1156-1162
Language en
Keywords Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Hypospadias, Morbidity, Phenotype, Psychiatry, report scale asrs, birth-weight, health, risk, depression, childhood, children, adults, boys
Subject categories Pediatrics, Psychiatry


Aim Population studies have shown an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders in males born with the congenital condition hypospadias, where the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis. We investigated overall psychiatric morbidity in cases and matched controls. Methods This study compared 167 men born with hypospadias from 1959 to 1994 in Stockholm or Gothenburg in Sweden using hospital registers. They were compared with controls from the Swedish population registry, who were contacted by regular mail and students who were recruited by local advertisements. The total sample had a mean age of 33.5 years (range: 19-54). They completed self-rating scales for depressive, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In addition, 33 cases and 47 controls underwent psychiatric morbidity interviews that covered the 17 most common psychiatric diagnoses. Results A fifth (21%) of both the cases and controls reported current or previous psychiatric symptoms. There were no significant differences in self-rated depression, anxiety or obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms between the patients and controls or between the different phenotype groups. The distribution was not significantly affected by the severity of hypospadias. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity was no higher in men with hypospadias than population-based controls.

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