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Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment and Depression in Adults with Coronary Artery Disease and Nonsleepy Obstructive Sleep Apnea. A Secondary Analysis of the RICCADSA Trial.

Journal article
Authors B Balcan
Erik Thunström
P J Strollo
Yüksel Peker
Published in Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Volume 16
Issue 1
Pages 62-70
ISSN 2325-6621
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Pages 62-70
Language en
Keywords coronary artery disease, depression, positive airway pressure, sleep apnea
Subject categories Clinical Medicine


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and depression are common among adults with coronary artery disease (CAD).To determine the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on depression in adults with CAD and nonsleepy OSA.This was a secondary analysis of the RICCADSA (Randomized Intervention with CPAP in CAD and Sleep Apnea) trial, conducted in Sweden between 2005 and 2013. Adults with CAD and nonsleepy OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥15/h, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale <10 at baseline) and complete Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaires at baseline, after 3 and 12 months, were included. Participants analyzed in their randomized arm were CPAP (n = 99) or no-CPAP (n = 104). Depression was defined as a Zung SDS score of 50 or greater. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the absolute change in the SDS score from baseline.No significant between-group differences were observed in SDS scores during follow-up in the entire study sample. Among the 56 participants with an SDS of 50 or greater at baseline (27.6%), the mean (±SD) baseline SDS was 55.0 (±5.5) in the CPAP group, and 53.9 (±4.0) in the no-CPAP group. In the CPAP group, SDS scores decreased at 3 months (47.2 ± 8.2) and 12 months (45.8 ± 7.6), but remained stable in the no-CPAP group at 3 months (53.1 ± 8.0) and 12 months (52.6 ± 8.1) (P = 0.01). The proportion with depression decreased from 30.3% at baseline to 16.2% after 3 months, and to 13.1% after 12 months in the CPAP group, from 25.0% at baseline to 23.1% after 3 months, and to 24.0% after 12 months in the no-CPAP group (P = 0.001). Moreover, there was an association between the duration of CPAP usage (h/night) and the longitudinal decline in SDS score (r = 0.46; P < 0.001). CPAP usage categories (3, 4, and 5 h/night) were significantly associated with improvement in SDS (odds ratio = 3.92, 4.45, and 4.89, respectively) in multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, left ventricular ejection fraction, apnea-hypopnea index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale at baseline.Among adults with depression, nonsleepy OSA, and CAD, 3 months of CPAP treatment improved depression scores. The improvement in mood persisted up to 12 months. An on-treatment adjusted analysis confirmed these findings. Clinical trial registered with (NCT00519597).

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