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Dietary Fructose and the Metabolic Syndrome

Journal article
Authors M. R. Taskinen
C. J. Packard
Jan Borén
Published in Nutrients
Volume 11
Issue 9
ISSN 2072-6643
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11091987
Keywords fructose, metabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridemia, metabolism, fatty liver-disease, serum uric-acid, de-novo lipogenesis, sweetened, beverages, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular-disease, cardiometabolic health, intrahepatic lipids, oxidative stress, Nutrition & Dietetics
Subject categories Internal medicine, Endocrinology

Abstract

Consumption of fructose, the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates, has increased dramatically in the last 40 years and is today commonly used commercially in soft drinks, juice, and baked goods. These products comprise a large proportion of the modern diet, in particular in children, adolescents, and young adults. A large body of evidence associate consumption of fructose and other sugar-sweetened beverages with insulin resistance, intrahepatic lipid accumulation, and hypertriglyceridemia. In the long term, these risk factors may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine and metabolized in the liver where it stimulates fructolysis, glycolysis, lipogenesis, and glucose production. This may result in hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important. Here we review recent evidence linking excessive fructose consumption to health risk markers and development of components of the Metabolic Syndrome.

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