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Typeful Ontologies with Direct Multilingual Verbalization

Conference paper
Authors Krasimir Angelov
Ramona Enache
Published in 2nd Workshop on Controlled Natural Languages, CNL 2010; Marettimo Island, Sicily; Italy; 13 September 2010 through 15 September 2010
Volume 7175
Pages 1-20
ISBN 978-3-642-31174-1
ISSN 0302-9743
Publication year 2012
Published at Department of Computer Science and Engineering (GU)
Pages 1-20
Language en
Keywords ontologies, type theory, knowledge representation, automated reasoning, natural language generation
Subject categories Computer science


We have developed a methodology for the representation of ontologies in a strictly typed language with dependent types. The methodology is supported by an experiment where we translated SUMO (Suggested Upper-Merged Ontology) to GF (Grammatical Framework). The representation of SUMO in GF preserves the expressivity of the original ontology, adding to this the advantages of a type system and built-in support for natural language generation. SUMO is the largest open-source ontology describing over 10,000 concepts and the relations between them, along with a number of first-order axioms, which are further on used in performing automated reasoning on the ontology. GF is a type-theoretical grammar formalism mainly used for natural language applications. Through the logical framework that it incorporates, GF allows a consistent ontology representation, and thanks to its grammatical features the ontology is directly verbalized in a number of controlled natural languages.

Page Manager: Webmaster|Last update: 9/11/2012

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