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The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population.

Journal article
Authors Magnus Åkerström
Lars Barregård
Thomas Lundh
Gerd Sällsten
Published in Toxicology and applied pharmacology
Volume 268
Issue 3
Pages 286-293
ISSN 1096-0333
Publication year 2013
Published at Institute of Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine
Pages 286-293
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2013.02.0...
Subject categories Pharmacology and Toxicology, Environmental medicine

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. METHODS: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. RESULTS: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (rp=0.70, p<0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (rp=0.44, p<0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44years. A K-Cd of 25μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. DISCUSSION: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd.

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