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Non-renal effects and the risk assessment of environmental cadmium exposure.

Journal article
Authors Agneta Åkesson
Lars Barregård
Ingvar A Bergdahl
Gunnar F Nordberg
Monica Nordberg
Staffan Skerfving
Published in Environmental health perspectives
Volume 122
Issue 5
Pages 431-8
ISSN 1552-9924
Publication year 2014
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Occupational and environmental medicine
Pages 431-8
Language en
Keywords Bone and Bones, drug effects, Cadmium, toxicity, Environmental Exposure, adverse effects, Humans, Kidney, drug effects, Neoplasms, chemically induced, Risk Assessment
Subject categories Clinical Medicine


Exposure to cadmium (Cd) has long been recognized as a health hazard, both in industry and in general populations with high exposure. Under the currently prevailing health risk assessment, the relationship between urinary Cd (U-Cd) concentrations and tubular proteinuria is used. However, doubts have recently been raised regarding the justification of basing the risk assessment on this relationship at very low exposure.

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