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A Swedish cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Tinnitus Functional Index

Journal article
Authors Maria Hoff
Kim R. Kähäri
Published in International Journal of Audiology
Volume 56
Pages 277-285
ISSN 1499-2027
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Health and Rehabilitation
Pages 277-285
Language en
Keywords behavioural measures, instrumentation, psycho-social/emotional, Tinnitus
Subject categories Other Medical Sciences


© 2016 British Society of Audiology, International Society of Audiology, and Nordic Audiological Society.Objective: The Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) is a recent self-report instrument for tinnitus with potential advantages over other existing instruments, including a demonstrated high responsiveness. The objectives of this study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the TFI into Swedish and to investigate its validity and reliability. Design: The development of the Swedish version (TFI-SE) followed published guidelines on cross-cultural adaptation of health questionnaires. Validity and reliability was investigated by correlating responses on the TFI-SE with other tinnitus measures [Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and visual analogue scale (VAS)] and a scale measuring anxiety and depression (HADS). Study sample: Consecutively recruited tinnitus patients (n = 100) from four Swedish clinics completed the questionnaires. The mean age of the sample was 51 years (SD =17). Results: The internal consistency of the TFI-SE was good (α = 0.95) and the test–retest reliability was high (ICC =0.93). Our results supported the eight-factor structure proposed for the original TFI, and a high correlation between the TFI-SE and the THI (r = 0.8; p < 0.01) and lower correlations between the TFI-SE and the HADS-D (r = 0.60; p < 0.01) and HADS-A (r = 0.59; p < 0.01) confirmed satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusions: We found that the Swedish translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the TFI is valid and reliable for use with adult tinnitus patients.

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