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Applying fluid biomarkers to Alzheimer’s disease

Journal article
Authors Henrik Zetterberg
Published in American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology
Volume 313
Issue 1
Pages C3-C10
ISSN 0363-6143
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology
Pages C3-C10
Language en
Keywords Alzheimer’s disease, Amyloid, Biomarkers, Blood, Cerebrospinal fluid, Neurofilament, Neurogranin, Plasma, Serum, Tau, amyloid beta protein, amyloid beta-protein (1-42), biological marker, fatty acid binding protein, MAPT protein, human, neurocalcin, NRGN protein, human, occludin, OCLN protein, human, peptide fragment, tau protein, VSNL1 protein, human, Alzheimer disease, differential diagnosis, human, intermediate filament, metabolism, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Amyloid beta-Peptides, Diagnosis, Differential, Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Humans, Intermediate Filaments, Peptide Fragments, tau Proteins
Subject categories Neuroscience


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that starts with a clinically silent phase of a decade or more during which brain pathologies accumulate predominantly in the medial temporal lobe but also elsewhere in the brain. Network dysfunction and clinical symptoms typically appear when senile plaque (amyloid-β) and neurofibrillary tangle (tau) pathologies meet in the brain parenchyma, producing synapse and neuronal loss. For plaque and tangle pathologies, reliable fluid biomarkers have been developed. These require sampling of cerebrospinal fluid. Reliable blood tests for plaque and tangle pathologies are currently lacking, but blood tests for general neurodegeneration have recently been developed. In AD, plaques and tangles often coexist with other pathologies, including Lewy bodies, and to what extent these contribute to symptoms is currently unknown. There are also important differential diagnoses that may be possible to distinguish from AD with the aid of biomarkers. The scope of this review is fluid biomarkers for AD and related pathologies. The purpose is to provide the reader with an updated account of currently available fluid biomarkers for AD and clinically relevant differential diagnoses. © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

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