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Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults: results from the EPIC-PANACEA study

Journal article
Authors Heinz Freisling
Hwayoung Noh
Nadia Slimani
Véronique Chajès
Anne M. May
Petra H. Peeters
Elisabete Weiderpass
Amanda J. Cross
Guri Skeie
Mazda Jenab
Francesca R. Mancini
Marie Christine Boutron-Ruault
Guy Fagherazzi
Verena A. Katzke
Tilman Kühn
Annika Steffen
Heiner Boeing
Anne Tjønneland
Cecilie Kyrø
Camilla P. Hansen
Kim Overvad
Eric J. Duell
Daniel Redondo-Sánchez
Pilar Amiano
Carmen Navarro
Aurelio Barricarte
Aurora Perez-Cornago
Konstantinos K. Tsilidis
Dagfinn Aune
Heather Ward
Antonia Trichopoulou
Androniki Naska
Philippos Orfanos
Giovanna Masala
Claudia Agnoli
Franco Berrino
Rosario Tumino
Carlotta Sacerdote
Amalia Mattiello
H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
Ulrika Ericson
Emily Sonestedt
Anna Winkvist
Tonje Braaten
Isabelle Romieu
Joan Sabaté
Published in European Journal of Nutrition
Volume 57
Issue 7
Pages 2399-2408
ISSN 1436-6207
Publication year 2018
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition
Pages 2399-2408
Language en
Keywords Adults, Energy balance, Europe, Nut intake, Obesity, Weight gain
Subject categories Nutrition and Dietetics


© 2017 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany Purpose: There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years. Methods: This study includes 373,293 men and women, 25–70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 10 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Habitual intake of nuts including peanuts, together defined as nut intake, was estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The association between nut intake and body weight change was estimated using multilevel mixed linear regression models with center/country as random effect and nut intake and relevant confounders as fixed effects. The relative risk (RR) of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI). Results: On average, study participants gained 2.1 kg (SD 5.0 kg) over 5 years. Compared to non-consumers, subjects in the highest quartile of nut intake had less weight gain over 5 years (−0.07 kg; 95% CI −0.12 to −0.02) (P trend = 0.025) and had 5% lower risk of becoming overweight (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92–0.98) or obese (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90–0.99) (both P trend < 0.008). Conclusions: Higher intake of nuts is associated with reduced weight gain and a lower risk of becoming overweight or obese.

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