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The Early Iron Age at Tell Abu al-Kharaz, Jordan Valley, and its relations to the Eastern Mediterranean: Trade, Migration, Hybridization, and Other Phenomena

Chapter in book
Authors Teresa Bürge
Peter M. Fischer
Published in Change, Continuity, and Connectivity : North-Eastern Mediterranean at the turn of the Bronze Age and in the early Iron Age / Łukasz Niesiołowski-Spanò and Marek Węcowski (eds.)
Pages 169-193
ISBN 978-3-447-10969-7
ISSN 1613-5628
Publisher Harrassowitz
Place of publication Wiesbaden
Publication year 2018
Published at Department of Historical Studies
Pages 169-193
Language en
Keywords archaeology, Late Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, migration, crisis years, Sea Peoples, trade, intermarriage, Eastern Mediterranean, Palestine, Jordan
Subject categories Archaeology, Non-European

Abstract

Although in the Transjordanian Jordan Valley, the town of Tell Abu al-Kharaz belongs to the Eastern Mediterranean sphere of culture with imported material from a vast area, There is evidence of immigration and/or intermarriage during the period of the "Sea Peoples", years of a general crisis starting at the end of the 13th century BCE and lasting most of the 12th century BCE. The end of the Bronze Age and beginning of the Iron Age was the period of a historical turning point for the relationship of the Aegean and the Levant. The two regions were closely related to each other and benefited mutually in this period. The transmission of the alphabet from the East to Greece and the appearance of Mycenaean-style pottery in the East illustrate the cultural borrowings in both directions. The volume presents updated studies on both regions and questions of bilateral relationships regarding archaeological, historical and linguistic aspects. These studies shed light on the pivotal periods of both regions: when Greek poleis were formed, with the culture related to it, and when the political and social situation in the Levant took its form, influencing the entire first millennium BCE. In the linguistic part, the volume includes papers showing possible linguistic relations and mutual borrowings in the triangle of Semitic, Greek and Anatolian languages. In the archaeological and historical parts, the studies deal both with case studies from Anatolia, Greece and Palestine and the synthetic issues regarding the ‘big’ questions. The book also presents the possible benefits of the usage of scientific methods in historical reconstruction – analysis of isotopes and ancient DNA samples. These new techniques offer a useful tool, expanding our way of exploring the past.

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