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The PER extended-spectrum beta-lactamases originate from Pararheinheimera sp.

Journal article
Authors Stefan Ebmeyer
Erik Kristiansson
D. G. Joakim Larsson
Published in International journal of antimicrobial agents
Volume 53
Issue 2
Pages 158-64
ISSN 1872-7913
Publication year 2019
Published at Department of Mathematical Sciences
Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Medicine
Centre for antibiotic resistance research, CARe
Pages 158-64
Language en
Subject categories Microbiology in the medical area, Bioinformatics (Computational Biology)


To investigate the origin of the PER extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, publicly available sequence databases were searched for PER-like genes. Three genomes from Pararheinheimera, a genus associated with water and soil environments, were found to carry PER-like genes, but lacked the ISCR1/ISPa12/ISPa13 insertion sequences (IS) commonly associated with PER in clinical isolates. Sequence analysis revealed 78-96% nucleotide identity and conserved synteny between the clinical mobile genetic elements (MGEs) encoding PER-1 and the PER locus in the Pararheinheimera genomes. Notably, PER genes were only identified in 3 of 21 Pararheinheimera and Rheinheimera genomes, whereas the genetic environment of PER genes as found in clinical MGEs was conserved in all Pararheinheimera and Rheinheimera genomes. These findings indicate that PER genes were likely acquired by a branch of the Pararheinheimera genus long before the antibiotic era. Later, PER genes were mobilized, likely through involvement of IS, from one or several Pararheinheimera species, allowing their dissemination into human pathogens.

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