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Prescription of lipid-lowering medications for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk-associated LDL cholesterol: a nationwide study of guideline adherence from the Swedish National Diabetes Register.

Journal article
Authors Sofia A. Karlsson
Stefan Franzén
Ann-Marie Svensson
Mervete Miftaraj
Björn Eliasson
Karolina Andersson Sundell
Published in BMC health services research
Volume 18
Issue 1
Pages 900
ISSN 1472-6963
Publication year 2018
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine
Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Pages 900
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3707-...
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...
Subject categories Diabetology

Abstract

Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) encompasses intensive glycaemic control, along with treatment of comorbidities and complications to handle the increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Improved control of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with lipid-lowering medications is associated with reduced CVD risk in T2DM patients. Thus, treatment guidelines recommend lipid-lowering medications for T2DM patients with LDL-C above risk-associated thresholds. This study aimed to assess healthcare provider adherence to guidelines regarding lipid-lowering medication prescription among T2DM patients and to analyse factors associated with lipid-lowering medication prescription.Observations in 2007 - 2014 for T2DM patients age ≥ 18 were collected from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Observations were excluded if they lacked information about LDL-C, lipid-lowering medication prescription or CVD. Observations with established CVD were attributed to secondary prevention; remaining observations were attributed to primary prevention. The analyses included primary and secondary prevention observations with LDL-C above risk-associated thresholds (LDL-C ≥ 2.5 mmol/l and LDL-C ≥ 1.8 mmol/l respectively). Guideline adherence was analysed as the probability of prescribing lipid-lowering medications using mixed-effect model regression adjusted for potential confounders. Factors associated with prescribing lipid-lowering medications were analysed for patient and healthcare provider characteristics using mixed-effect model regression and odds ratio.A total of 1,204,376 observations from 322,046 patients reported by 1352 healthcare providers were included. Primary prevention accounted for 63%; 52% were men, mean age was 64 and mean LDL-C was 3.4 mmol/l. For secondary prevention, 60% were men, mean age was 72 and mean LDL-C was 2.7 mmol/l. During 2007-2014, guideline adherence ranged from 36 to 47% for primary prevention and 59 to 69% for secondary prevention. In general, concomitant prescription of diabetes medications, antiplatelets and antihypertensives along with smoking and specialised care were associated with higher prescription of lipid-lowering medications. Patients age ≥ 80 were associated with lower prescription of lipid-lowering medications. Higher prescription was associated with longer diabetes duration in primary prevention and men in secondary prevention.Adherence to treatment guidelines levelled off after an initial increase in both prevention groups. Lipid-lowering medication prescription was based on individualised CVD risk.

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