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Crosstalk between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiometabolic syndrome

Journal article
Authors S. Lim
M. R. Taskinen
Jan Borén
Published in Obesity Reviews
Volume 20
Issue 4
Pages 599-611
ISSN 1467-7881
Publication year 2019
Published at Wallenberg Laboratory
Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Pages 599-611
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12820
Keywords cardiometabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatic insulin-resistance, endoplasmic-reticulum stress, c-reactive, protein, term-follow-up, metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress, gut, microbiota, cardiovascular-disease, alanine aminotransferase, risk-factors
Subject categories Clinical Medicine, Endocrinology

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic condition characterized by fat accumulation combined with low-grade inflammation in the liver. A large body of clinical and experimental data shows that increased flux of free fatty acids from increased visceral adipose tissue and de novo lipogenesis can lead to NAFLD and insulin resistance. Thus, individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidaemia are at the greatest risk of developing NAFLD. Conversely, NAFLD is a phenotype of cardiometabolic syndrome. Notably, researchers have discovered a close association between NAFLD and impaired glucose metabolism and focused on the role of NAFLD in the development of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, recent studies provide substantial evidence for an association between NAFLD and atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic disorders. Even if NAFLD can progress into severe liver disorders including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, the majority of subjects with NAFLD die from cardiovascular disease eventually. In this review, we propose a potential pathological link between NAFLD/NASH and cardiometabolic syndrome. The potential factors that can play a pivotal role in this link, such as inflammation, insulin resistance, alteration in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, genetic predisposition, and gut microbiota are discussed.

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