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Changes in functional outcome over five years after stroke

Journal article
Authors A. Rejno
S. Nasic
K. Bjalkefur
E. Bertholds
Katarina Jood
Published in Brain and Behavior
Volume 9
Issue 6
ISSN 2162-3279
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1300
Keywords functional outcome, quality register, longitudinal study, stroke, 1st ischemic-stroke, long-term, disability, register, support, Behavioral Sciences, Neurosciences & Neurology
Subject categories Neurosciences

Abstract

Objectives Data on the long-term time course of poststroke functional outcome is limited. We investigated changes in functional outcome over 5 years after stroke in a hospital based cohort. Materials and Methods Consecutive patients who were independent in activities of daily living (ADL) and admitted to a Stroke Unit at Skaraborg Hospital, Sweden for a first acute stroke from 2007 to 2009 (n = 1,421) were followed-up after 3 months and thereafter annually over 5 years using a postal questionnaire. Clinical variables at acute stroke and 3 months post stroke were obtained from the Swedish Stroke Register. ADL dependency was defined as dependence in dressing, toileting or indoor mobility. Results The proportions of survivors who reported ADL dependency remained stable throughout follow-up (19%-22%). However, among survivors who were ADL independent at 3 months, about 3% deteriorated to dependency each year. Deterioration was predicted by age (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.08-1.13), diabetes (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.12-2.44), NIHSS score (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10), and self-perceived unmet care needs one year post stroke (HR 2.01; 95% CI 1.44-2.81). Transitions from ADL dependency to independence occurred mainly during the first year post stroke. Improvement was negatively predicted by living alone before stroke (HR 0.41 95% CI 0.19-0.91), NIHSS score (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.86-0.95) and ischemic stroke (vs. hemorrhagic stroke), HR 0.39; 95% CI 0.17-0.89. Conclusion Transitions between ADL independence and dependency occur up to 5 years after stroke. Some of the factors predicting these transitions are potentially modifiable.

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