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Molecular insights into hypomineralized enamel

Journal article
Authors Per Malmberg
Jörgen G Norén
Diana Bernin
Published in European Journal of Oral Sciences
Volume 127
Issue 4
Pages 340-346
ISSN 0909-8836
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Odontology
Swedish NMR Centre at Göteborg University
Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 340-346
Language en
Keywords solid-state NMR, ToF-SIMS, molar-incisor hypomineralization, solid-state nmr, ion, mass-spectrometry, tof-sims analysis, mechanical-properties, protein, bone, amelogenin, etiology, calcium, Dentistry, Oral Surgery & Medicine
Subject categories Dentistry


Hypomineralized enamel may be found in connection with the condition molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), which has a prevalence of around 15% in most parts of the world. Molar incisor hypomineralization is associated with extensive objective and subjective problems, such as hypersensitivity of the affected teeth, enamel breakdown, and problems with retention of restorations. The etiology behind MIH has not yet been elucidated, but a number of possible factors, which affect the same or different functions of ameloblasts during their different stages of maturation, have been suggested. The aim of this study was to utilize multi-nuclear, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ss-NMR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to elucidate any differences, at a molecular level, between enamel powder prepared from normal, healthy teeth and enamel powder prepared from teeth diagnosed with MIH. P-31 and Na-23 ss-NMR confirmed the presence of HPO42- and two different Na+ sites in hypomineralized enamel, suggesting a heterogeneous chemical composition. The content of organic components was higher in hypomineralized enamel, as shown by both C-13 ss-NMR and ToF-SIMS, indicating the presence of higher numbers of proteins and phospholipids. The interplay between both is necessary for the formation and mineralization of enamel, which might be disturbed or halted in hypomineralized enamel.

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