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Role of epigenetics in alveolar bone resorption and regeneration around periodontal and peri-implant tissues.

Journal article
Authors Farah Asa'ad
Alberto Monje
Lena Larsson
Published in European journal of oral sciences
ISSN 1600-0722
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Odontology
Institute of Odontology, Section 2
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1111/eos.12657
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...
Subject categories Periodontology, Dentistry

Abstract

Periodontitis and peri-implantitis are multifactorial diseases characterized by alveolar bone destruction mediated by the host response to a microbial challenge. Alveolar bone resorption mediated by epigenetics could be one of the mechanisms responsible for this destruction of alveolar bone. The relationship between epigenetic modifications and bone metabolism has been thoroughly investigated in bone remodeling, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis, but evidence is low regarding the relationship between epigenetic modifications and alveolar bone loss related to periodontal and peri-implant diseases. Therefore, we conducted a review of the pertinent literature based on a priori-formulated focused questions and a screening strategy, in an attempt to comprehend the role of different epigenetic mechanisms in alveolar bone loss and to determine the current state with respect to their possible therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. The review showed that the roles of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in bone loss have been investigated. The results indicate that epigenetic mechanisms can participate in periodontal and peri-implant alveolar bone breakdown, suggesting their potential as therapeutic targets in alveolar bone regeneration. However, there is still only preliminary information regarding the possible therapeutic utility of these epigenetic mechanisms, suggesting a need for basic and translational research to assess the potential of such mechanisms in promoting alveolar bone regeneration.

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