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Determinants of suboptimal long-term secondary prevention of acute myocardial infarction: the structural interview method and physical examinations

Journal article
Authors Maria Sakalaki
Salim B. Barywani
Annika Rosengren
Lena Björck
Michael Fu
Published in Bmc Cardiovascular Disorders
Volume 19
Issue 1
ISSN 1471-2261
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-019-1238-...
Keywords Cardiovascular disease, Secondary prevention, Myocardial infarction, Diabetes, coronary-artery-disease, heart-disease, risk, stroke, Cardiovascular System & Cardiology
Subject categories Cardiovascular medicine

Abstract

Background Secondary prevention after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) reduces morbidity and mortality, but suboptimal secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease is common. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify potential underlying factors for suboptimal secondary prevention 2 years after an AMI event. Methods Patients aged 18-85 years at the time of their index AMI and hospitalized between July 2010 and December 2011, were identified retrospectively and consecutively from hospital discharge records. All patients who agreed to participate underwent a structured interview, physical examinations and laboratory analysis 2 years after their index AMI. The secondary preventive goals included are; blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg, LDL < 1.8 mmol/L, HbA1c < 48 mmol/mol, regular physical activity that causes sweating at least twice a week, non-smoking and BMI < 25 kg/m(2). Multivariable and univariable logistic regression models were applied to identify independent predictors of different secondary prevention achievements. Results Of the 200 patients (mean age 63.3 +/- 9.7 years) included in the study, 159 (80%) were men. No common determinants were found in patients who failed to achieve at least six secondary prevention guideline-directed goals. For individual secondary prevention goals, several determinants were defined. Patients born in Sweden were less likely to achieve optimal lipid control [odds ratio (OR) 0.28 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.12-0.63)]. Younger (<= 65 years) [OR 0.24 (95% CI 0.07-0.74)] and unemployed patients [OR 0.23 (95% CI 0.06-0.82)] were less likely to be non-smokers. Patients with diabetes mellitus [OR 0.21 (95% CI 0.04-0.98)] or with a walking aid [OR 0.23 (95% CI 0.07-0.71)] were less likely to achieve an optimal body mass index (BMI < 25). Living alone was an independent predictor of achieving regular physical activity [OR 1.94 (95% CI 1.02-3.69)]. Conclusion Long-term secondary prevention remained suboptimal 2 years after an AMI. Causes are likely multifactorial, with no single determinant for all six guideline-recommended preventive goals. Therefore a tailored comprehensive assessment should be requested and updated and treatment of risk factors should be applied.

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