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Global Outcome Assessment Life-long after stroke in young adults initiative-the GOAL initiative: study protocol and rationale of a multicentre retrospective individual patient data meta-analysis.

Journal article
Authors Merel Ekker
Mina Jacob
Myrna van Dongen
Karoliina Aarnio
Arunkar Annamalai
Antonio Arauz
Marcel Arnold
Miguel Barboza
Manuel Bolognese
Raf Brouns
Batnairamdal Chuluun
Enkhzaya Chuluunbaatar
Byambasuren Dagvajantsan
Stephanie Debette
Adi Don
Chris Enzinger
Esme Ekizoglu
Simon Fandler-Höfler
Franz Fazekas
Anette Fromm
Thomas Gattringer
Giosue Gulli
Michael Hoffmann
Thiago Hora
Christina Jern
Katarina Jood
Masahiro Kamouchi
Young Seo Kim
Takanari Kitazono
Steven Kittner
Timothy Kleinig
Karin Klijn
Janika Korv
Tsong-Hai Lee
Didier Leys
Noortje Maaijwee
Nicolas Martinez-Majander
João Pedro Marto
M Mehndiratta
Victoria Mifsud
Vinicius Montanaro
M O Owolabi
Vinod Patel
Matthew Phillips
Bartlomiej Piechowski-Iozwiak
Aleksandra Pikula
Jose Luis Ruiz-Sandoval
Bettina Sarnowski
Floris Schreuder
Rick Swartz
K S Tan
David Tanne
T Tatlisumak
Vincent Thijs
Anil Tuladhar
Miguel Viana-Baptista
Riina Vibo
Teddy Wu
Nilüfer Yesilot
Ulrike Waje-Andreassen
Alessandro Pezzini
Jukka Putaala
Frank-Erik de Leeuw
Published in BMJ open
Volume 9
Issue 11
ISSN 2044-6055
Publication year 2019
Published at Institute of Biomedicine
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience
Language en
Subject categories Neurology


Worldwide, 2 million patients aged 18-50 years suffer a stroke each year, and this number is increasing. Knowledge about global distribution of risk factors and aetiologies, and information about prognosis and optimal secondary prevention in young stroke patients are limited. This limits evidence-based treatment and hampers the provision of appropriate information regarding the causes of stroke, risk factors and prognosis of young stroke patients.The Global Outcome Assessment Life-long after stroke in young adults (GOAL) initiative aims to perform a global individual patient data meta-analysis with existing data from young stroke cohorts worldwide. All patients aged 18-50 years with ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage will be included. Outcomes will be the distribution of stroke aetiology and (vascular) risk factors, functional outcome after stroke, risk of recurrent vascular events and death and finally the use of secondary prevention. Subgroup analyses will be made based on age, gender, aetiology, ethnicity and climate of residence.Ethical approval for the GOAL study has already been obtained from the Medical Review Ethics Committee region Arnhem-Nijmegen. Additionally and when necessary, approval will also be obtained from national or local institutional review boards in the participating centres. When needed, a standardised data transfer agreement will be provided for participating centres. We plan dissemination of our results in peer-reviewed international scientific journals and through conference presentations. We expect that the results of this unique study will lead to better understanding of worldwide differences in risk factors, causes and outcome of young stroke patients.

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