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Attosecond pulse shaping using a seeded free-electron laser

Journal article
Authors Praveen Kumar Maroju
Cesare Grazioli
Michele Di Fraia
Matteo Moioli
Dominik Ertel
Hamed Ahmadi
Oksana Plekan
Paola Finetti
Enrico Allaria
Luca Giannessi
Giovanni De Ninno
Carlo Spezzani
Giuseppe Penco
Simone Spampinati
Alexander Demidovich
Miltcho Danailov
Roberto Borghes
George Kourousias
Carlos Eduardo Sanches Dos Reis
Fulvio Billé
Alberto A. Lutman
Richard J. Squibb
Raimund Feifel
Paolo Carpeggiani
Maurizio Reduzzi
Tommaso Mazza
Michael Meyer
Samuel Bengtsson
Neven Ibrakovic
Emma Rose Simpson
Johan Mauritsson
Tamás Csizmadia
Mathieu Dumergue
Sergei Kühn
N. G. Harshitha
Daehyun You
Kiyoshi Ueda
Marie Labeye
Jens Egebjerg Bækhøj
Kenneth J. Schafer
Elena V. Gryzlova
Alexei N. Grum-Grzhimailo
Kevin C. Prince
Carlo Callegari
Giuseppe Sansone
Published in Nature
Volume 578
Pages 386–391
ISSN 0028-0836
Publication year 2020
Published at Department of Physics (GU)
Pages 386–391
Language en
Keywords Free electron lasers, high harmonic generation, ultrafast lasers
Subject categories Physical Sciences, Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics


Attosecond pulses are central to the investigation of valence- and core-electron dynamics on their natural timescales. The reproducible generation and characterization of attosecond waveforms has been demonstrated so far only through the process of high-order harmonic generation. Several methods for shaping attosecond waveforms have been proposed, including the use of metallic filters, multilayer mirrors and manipulation of the driving field. However, none of these approaches allows the flexible manipulation of the temporal characteristics of the attosecond waveforms, and they suffer from the low conversion efficiency of the high-order harmonic generation process. Free-electron lasers, by contrast, deliver femtosecond, extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray pulses with energies ranging from tens of microjoules to a few millijoules. Recent experiments have shown that they can generate subfemtosecond spikes, but with temporal characteristics that change shot-to-shot. Here we report reproducible generation of high-energy (microjoule level) attosecond waveforms using a seeded free-electron laser. We demonstrate amplitude and phase manipulation of the harmonic components of an attosecond pulse train in combination with an approach for its temporal reconstruction. The results presented here open the way to performing attosecond time-resolved experiments with free-electron lasers.

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