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Resistance Exercise Evokes Changes on Urinary Bladder Function and Morphology in Hypoestrogen Rats

Journal article
Authors Fernanda M. Magaldi
Monise Moreno
Cristiane M. Magaldi
Eduardo M. Cafarchio
Patrik Aronsson
Monica A. Sato
Laura B. M. Maifrino
Published in Frontiers in Physiology
Volume 10
ISSN 1664-042X
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Pharmacology
Language en
Links https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019....
Keywords urinary bladder, physical exercise, ovariectomy, estrogen, morphofunctional analysis
Subject categories Pharmacology

Abstract

Serum levels of estrogen decrease at climacterium and directly interfere with the urogenital tract. Urinary bladder (UB) is responsive to hormonal changes, especially estrogen. Resistance exercise elicits benefits on severe chronic diseases. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether the resistance exercise directly affects the UB in ovariectomized (OVx) rats. This study focused on investigating the effects of resistance exercise on UB function and morphology in OVx and control rats. Adult female Wistar rats (∼250-300 g, 14-16 weeks old) [control (n = 20) and OVx (n = 20)] were divided in the following groups: sedentary (SED), and trained over 1 week (acute), 3 weeks (intermediate), and 10 weeks (chronic). Training was carried out in a ladder, with six bouts in alternate days with 75% of body weight load attached to the tail of the animal. Afterward, the animals were isoflurane anesthetized for evaluation of intravesical pressure (IP) changes upon topical administration of acetylcholine (Ach) and noradrenaline (NE) on the UB. At the end of the experiment, the UB was harvested for histological analysis and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red. Ach increased the IP in both OVx and control rats, whereas NE decreased the IP. However, the acute and intermediate groups showed attenuated responses to Ach and NE, while the chronic groups recovered the responses to Ach and NE close to those observed in SED groups. Acute and intermediate groups also showed decreased thickness of the muscular layer, with a reversal of the process with chronic training. In the OVx groups, the acute training reduced the thickness of the smooth muscle and mucosal layers, whereas chronic training increased it. Urothelium thickness decreased in the OVx SED and acute groups. Collagen type I fibers (CI-F) reduced in OVx SED acute and intermediate groups, while collagen type III fibers (CIII-F) increased in the OVx acute group. In the mucosal layer, the volume density of CFs reduced in OVx rats compared to control groups and chronic training resulted in their recovery. Our data suggest that chronic resistance exercise for 10 weeks reversed the functional and morphological changes caused by hypoestrogenism.

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