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Ocular findings and growth in 5-year-old preterm children born to mothers with preeclampsia

Journal article
Authors Alexandra Lind
Jovanna Dahlgren
Amanda Moran
Kerstin Allvin
Lina H. Raffa
Josefin Nilsson
Eva Aring
Marita Andersson Grönlund
Published in Acta Ophthalmologica
Pages 8
ISSN 1755-375X
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Pediatrics
Pages 8
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14455
Keywords eye motility, insulin-like growth factor I, optic cup area, preeclampsia, preterm, for-gestational-age, catch-up growth, birth-weight, factor-i, hypertensive disorders, visual dysfunction, school-age, pregnancy, classification, impairment, Ophthalmology
Subject categories Neurosciences

Abstract

Purpose To evaluate growth, blood pressure and ophthalmological status in preschool children born preterm to mothers with preeclampsia. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 78 children (34 girls) born preterm without retinopathy of prematurity were examined regarding length/height, weight, head circumference and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) at birth and at 5 years of age. At 5 years, IGF-binding protein 3 and blood pressure were also measured. A detailed ophthalmological examination including ocular dimensions, fundus morphology, visual fields, visual evoked potentials and perceptual visual dysfunction was performed. Children born to preeclamptic mothers (n = 24) were compared to children with non-preeclamptic mothers (n = 54). Results Children exposed to preeclampsia had lower weight (p = 0.0002, mean difference -1.46, 95% CI -2.09; -0.83), length (p = 0.013, -1.10, 95% CI -1.92; -0.23) and IGF-I levels (p = 0.0002, -26.0, 95% CI -36.0; -16.1) at birth compared to non-exposed children. At 5 years of age, the preeclamptic group had larger optic cup areas (p = 0.0006, 0.32, 95% CI 0.15; 0.46, in right eye, p = 0.049, 0.18, 95% CI 0.001; 0.35, in left eye). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding other ophthalmological findings or blood pressure. Children with reduced eye motility had lower neonatal IGF-I levels (p = 0.033, 15.5, 95% CI 1.1; 30.3). Conclusion Preeclampsia was shown to affect growth and IGF-I levels, confirming previous studies. Children exposed to preeclampsia were shown to have larger optic cup areas. Furthermore, lower neonatal IGF-I levels were seen in preterm children with reduced eye motility at 5 years of age.

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