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Microbiota-Related Metabolites and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

Journal article
Authors J. Vangipurapu
L. F. Silva
T. Kuulasmaa
Ulf Smith
M. Laakso
Published in Diabetes care
Volume 43
Issue 6
Pages 1319-1325
ISSN 0149-5992
Publication year 2020
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Pages 1319-1325
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc19-2533
Keywords gut microbiota, creatine supplementation, insulin-resistance, health, acid, secretion, physiology, markers, Endocrinology & Metabolism
Subject categories Endocrinology and Diabetes

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Recent studies have highlighted the significance of the microbiome in human health and disease. Changes in the metabolites produced by microbiota have been implicated in several diseases. Our objective was to identify microbiome metabolites that are associated with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Our study included 5,181 participants from the cross-sectional Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study that included Finnish men (age 57 +/- 7 years, BMI 26.5 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2)) having metabolomics data available. Metabolomics analysis was performed based on fasting plasma samples. On the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test, Matsuda ISI and disposition index values were calculated as markers of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. A total of 4,851 participants had a 7.4-year follow-up visit, and 522 participants developed type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Creatine, 1-palmitoleoylglycerol (16:1), urate, 2-hydroxybutyrate/2-hydroxyisobutyrate, xanthine, xanthurenate, kynurenate, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate, 1-oleoylglycerol (18:1), 1-myristoylglycerol (14:0), dimethylglycine, and 2-hydroxyhippurate (salicylurate) were significantly associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. These metabolites were associated with decreased insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or both. Among the metabolites that were associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, 1-linoleoylglycerophosphocholine (18:2) significantly reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Several novel and previously reported microbial metabolites related to the gut microbiota were associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes, and they were also associated with decreased insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Microbial metabolites are important biomarkers for the risk of type 2 diabetes.

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