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Complete range of the universal MtDNA gene pool and high genetic diversity in the thai dog population

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Liangliang Zhang
Yilin Liu
Quan Thai Ke
Arman Ardalan
Ukadej Boonyaprakob
Peter Savolainen
Publicerad i Genes
Volym 11
Nummer/häfte 3
Publiceringsår 2020
Publicerad vid
Språk en
Länkar https://doi.org/10.3390/genes110302...
Ämnesord Dog, Genetic diversity, MtDNA, Thailand
Ämneskategorier Bioinformatik och systembiologi, Evolutionsbiologi, Genetik

Sammanfattning

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. T. The dog population of Southern East Asia is unique in harboring virtually the full range of the universal mtDNA gene pool, and consequently, it has the highest genetic diversity worldwide. Despite this, limited research has been performed on dog genetics within this region. Here we present the first comprehensive study of a sub-region within Southern East Asia, analyzing 528bp of mtDNA for 265 dogs from Thailand, in the context of dogs from across the Old World. We found that Thailand was the only region in the world that has the full range of the universal mtDNA gene pool, that is, all 10 sub-haplogroups. Consequently, the statistics for diversity are among the highest, especially in North Thailand, which had high values for haplotype diversity and the number of haplotypes, and the lowest proportion of individuals with a universal type-derived haplotype (UTd) among all regions. As previously observed, genetic diversity is distinctly lower outside Southern East Asia and it decreases following a cline to the lowest values in western Eurasia. Thus, the limited geographical region of Thailand harbors a distinctly higher genetic diversity than much larger regions in western Eurasia, for example, Southwest Asia and Europe which have only five and four of the 10 sub-haplogroups, respectively. Within Thailand, diversity statistics for all four sub-regions follow the general pattern of Southern East Asia, but North Thailand stands out with its high diversity compared to the other regions. These results show that a small part of Southern East Asia harbors the full range of the mtDNA gene pool, and they emphasize the exceptional genetic status of Southern East Asia. This indicates that today's dogs can trace a major part of their ancestry to Southern East Asia or closely situated regions, highlighting Thailand as a region of special interest. Considering the large genetic diversity found in Thailand and that many neighboring regions, e.g., Myanmar and Laos, have not been studied for dog genetics, it is possible that large parts of the dog gene pool remain undiscovered. It will be an important task for future studies to fill in these blanks on the phylogeographic map.

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