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MicroRNAs: From Female Fertility, Germ Cells, and Stem Cells to Cancer in Humans

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare I. Virant-Klun
Anders Ståhlberg
M. Kubista
T. Skutella
Publicerad i Stem Cells International
Sidor Article ID 3984937
ISSN 1687-966X
Publiceringsår 2016
Publicerad vid Institutionen för biomedicin, avdelningen för patologi
Sahlgrenska Cancer Center
Sidor Article ID 3984937
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3984937
Ämnesord premature ovarian failure, cumulus-oocyte complex, human, granulosa-cells, in-vitro, follicular-fluid, gene-expression, embryo, implantation, messenger-rna, culture-media, human sperm, Cell Biology
Ämneskategorier Cellbiologi

Sammanfattning

MicroRNAs are a family of naturally occurring small noncoding RNA molecules that play an important regulatory role in gene expression. They are suggested to regulate a large proportion of protein encoding genes by mediating the translational suppression and posttranscriptional control of gene expression. Recent findings show that microRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and dedifferentiation, and are deeply involved in developmental processes including human preimplantation development. They keep a balance between pluripotency and differentiation in the embryo and embryonic stem cells. Moreover, it became evident that dysregulation of microRNA expression may play a fundamental role in progression and dissemination of different cancers including ovarian cancer. The interest is still increased by the discovery of exosomes, that is, cell-derived vesicles, which can carry different proteins but also microRNAs between different cells and are involved in cell-to-cell communication. MicroRNAs, together with exosomes, have a great potential to be used for prognosis, therapy, and biomarkers of different diseases including infertility. The aim of this review paper is to summarize the existent knowledge on microRNAs related to female fertility and cancer: from primordial germ cells and ovarian function, germinal stem cells, oocytes, and embryos to embryonic stem cells.

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