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Chapter 5, Policy, legal and institutional framework and procedures regarding sea-based measures

Kapitel i rapport
Författare Brita Bohman
Henrik Ringbom
Saara Illvessalo
Publicerad i Speeding up the ecological recovery of the Baltic Sea (EUTROPH 6), Ministry of the Environment, Finland
Sidor 118-229
Publiceringsår 2018
Publicerad vid Juridiska institutionen
Sidor 118-229
Språk en
Länkar www.centrumbalticum.org/files/3568/...
Ämnesord Sea-based measures; Marine geoengineering; Baltic Sea; Eutrophication; Internal nutrient reserves; HELCOM; Law and Regulation
Ämneskategorier Juridik och samhälle


This chapter reviews policy, legal and institutional framework and procedures regarding sea-based measures and provides an overview of the general legal framework and its applicability from an international and national perspective (primarily Finland, but also Sweden), as well as a review of the main policy interest in sea-based measures by different institutions. Sea-based measures are relatively new and there are no laws relating specifically to such measures. Instead, this chapter reviews what laws and principles apply to different types of measures in different sea areas. The relevant rules and principles are mainly those that govern different forms of marine activities and activities with (potential) effects on the marine environment. A broad range of such rules and principles apply, at several different levels of regulation. The main material rules originate from international and EU legislation, while the implementation takes place at national level. A main conclusion following from the review is that the legality of sea-based measures is closely related to their short-term and long-term effects. The environmental risks will for example decide on whether the matter is to be considered as 'pollution of the marine environment', dumping or marine geoengineering. In other words, if the measures succeed in improving the environment without posing short-term risks, law presents few obstacles for their introduction. Conversely, if the benefits are limited and environmental risks important, a whole range of legal obstacles present themselves at all legal levels. There is considerable uncertainty about the effects of the different kinds of measures, which complicates this legal assessment that eventually will be made by national authorities when evaluating the permit request for the measure.

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