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Osteoclasts in Health and Disease.

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Ulf H Lerner
Publicerad i Pediatric endocrinology reviews : PER
Volym 17
Nummer/häfte 2
Sidor 88-99
ISSN 1565-4753
Publiceringsår 2019
Publicerad vid Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research
Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för invärtesmedicin och klinisk nutrition
Sidor 88-99
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.17458/per.vol17.2019....
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.f...
Ämnesord Bone Resorption, Humans, Membrane Glycoproteins, Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B
Ämneskategorier Endokrinologi och diabetes

Sammanfattning

Osteoclasts are multinucleated, giant cells originating from myeloid hematopoetic stem cells. These are the only cells in nature which can resorb bone. Differentiation of mononucleated osteoclast progenitor cells requires stimulation with M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor) for the cells to proliferate and survive and with RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand) for differentiation along the osteoclastic lineage to cells which eventually fuse to the mature, multinucleated osteoclasts. Therefore, most hormones and cytokines stimulating osteoclastogenesis do so indirectly by regulating the expression in osteoblasts of RANKL and its inhibitory decoy receptor OPG. Antibodies neutralizing RANKL is a common therapy to inhibit excessive osteoclast formation in diseases such as osteoporosis and malignant tumors with skeletal metastasis. Mature osteoclasts resorb bone by stimulating acid release into the resorption lacunae, followed by proteolytic degradation of bone matrix proteins. Loss-of-function mutations of proteins involved in acidification and proteolysis cause osteopetrosis, a disease with sclerotic bone due to non-functional osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are important for a healthy skeleton by removing damaged bone during remodeling of the skeleton, but are also important for modeling of bone, calcium homeostasis and tooth eruption, and possibly also for glucose and fat metabolism. Loss of bone in inflammatory disease, metastasizing tumors and osteoporosis is due to increased RANKL expression and enhanced osteoclast formation. The present overview aims to summarize how osteoclasts are formed and resorb bone in health and disease.

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