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Are the First or the Second Hips of Staged Bilateral THAs More Similar to Unilateral Procedures? A Study from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Erik Bülow
Szilard Nemes
Ola Rolfson
Publicerad i Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Volym 478
Nummer/häfte 6
Sidor 1262-1270
ISSN 0009-921X
Publiceringsår 2020
Publicerad vid Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för ortopedi
Sidor 1262-1270
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1097/corr.00000000000...
Ämnesord relative survival analysis, outcomes, Orthopedics, Surgery
Ämneskategorier Ortopedi

Sammanfattning

Background Bilateral THAs performed in the same patient should not be considered independent observations, neither biologically nor statistically. As a result, when surgical results are reviewed, it is common to analyze only the first of the two hips, assuming that the first, and not the second hip of a staged bilateral THA, better resembles unilateral THAs. This assumption has not been empirically justified. Question/purposes (1) In patients with staged bilateral THA, is the first or second hip more similar to a unilateral THA in terms of age at surgery, presence of any preoperative Charlson comorbidity, and risk of postoperative reoperation? (2) Should the date of a first or second hip surgery of a staged bilateral THA be used as a starting point for patient survival to better resemble patients with unilateral THA? Methods We identified 68,357 THAs due to osteoarthritis in 63,613 patients from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR) in 1999-2015. Of those THAs, 14,780 concerned the first hip of a staged bilateral procedure performed between 1999 and 2004; 28,542 were unilaterals from 2004 to 2008, and 25,035 concerned the second hip of a staged bilateral procedure performed 2008 to 2015. We excluded patients who underwent one-stage bilateral THAs. We used different inclusion periods to distinguish unilateral procedures from the first and second hips from staged bilateral procedures because sufficiently long set-up and follow-up periods were needed before and after each period to identify possible contralateral THAs. This introduced potential period confounding, meaning that possible group differences might not be distinguished from unrelated outcome differences over time. We investigated if such time trends existed. It did not for age and reoperation rates, but it did for comorbidity and patient survival. Our primary study endpoint was whether patients with unilateral THAs were more similar to patients with a first hip of a staged bilateral THA, or to patients with their second hip operated. We used Student's t-test to compare mean age at surgery. The proportion of patients with at least one presurgery Charlson comorbidity were compared by 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, after subtracting the yearly time-trend to avoid period confounding. Postoperative risks of reoperation were compared by log-rank tests of Kaplan-Meier curves and by comparing 5-year reoperation rates by pair-wise 95% CIs. Our secondary study endpoint was to compare patient survival for patients with a unilateral THA, a first hip of a staged bilateral THA, or a second hip of a staged bilateral THA. We evaluated this by relative 5-year survival, comparing patients of each group with the general Swedish population of the same age, sex, and year of birth. This way, possible survival differences would be less likely explained by period confounding. Results Patients undergoing unilateral THA were older than those undergoing a first hip of a staged bilateral THA (70 +/- 10 versus 66 +/- 9 years, mean difference of 4; p < .001), but they were not different from patients undergoing the second hip of a staged bilateral THA (70 +/- 9 years, mean difference of 0; p = 0.74). The period-adjusted proportion of patients with unilateral THA and presurgery comorbidity (Charlson index > 0) was 20% (95% CI: 19.8-20.7). This was no different from patients with a second hip from a staged bilateral THA (20%; 19.7-20.6), but higher compared to patients with a first hip of a staged bilateral THA (15%; 14.5-15.4). For reoperation rates, the log-rank tests showed no difference between unilateral THAs and the second hips of staged bilateral THAs (). Such difference was found for unilaterals compared with the first hips of staged bilateral THAs (). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of reoperation rates at 5 years after surgery were also no different for the unilateral THAs compared with the second hips of staged bilateral THAs (3% [95% CI 2.8 to 3.2] for both groups). It was lower (2% [95% CI 1.8 to 2.3]) for a first hip of a staged bilateral THA. For the secondary outcome, the relative 5-year survival differed for all groups. It was 105% (95% CI 104.9 to 105.9) for patients with unilateral THA, 107% (95% CI 106.3 to 107.4) for patients with a second hip from a staged bilateral THA and 109% (95% CI 108.8 to 109.5) for patients with a first hip of a staged bilateral THA. Patients with only a first hip of a planned staged bilateral THA who did not survive long enough to undergo their second THA were classified as unilaterals. The rank-order of survival curves are therefore by design ("immortal time bias"). We conclude, however, that survival for patients with unilateral THA more closely resembles the survival of patients with a second hip of a staged bilateral THA, compared with the first. Conclusions Our findings, which are based on observational register data, challenge the common practice in epidemiologic studies of analyzing only the first hip of a staged bilateral THA. We recommend analyzing the second THA in a patient who has undergone staged bilateral THA rather than the first because the second procedure better resembles unilateral THA.

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