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Fluorene exposure among PAH-exposed workers is associated with epigenetic markers related to lung cancer

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare A. Alhamdow
Y. J. Essig
A. M. Krais
P. Gustavsson
Håkan Tinnerberg
C. H. Lindh
J. Hagberg
P. Graff
M. Albin
K. Broberg
Publicerad i Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Volym 77
Nummer/häfte 7
Sidor 488-495
ISSN 1351-0711
Publiceringsår 2020
Publicerad vid Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa
Sidor 488-495
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2020-10641...
Ämnesord smoking, health care workers, risk assessment, cross sectional studies, cancer, polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons, occupational-exposure, 1-hydroxypyrene, metabolites, pyrene, Public, Environmental & Occupational Health
Ämneskategorier Miljömedicin och yrkesmedicin

Sammanfattning

Objectives Exposure to high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause cancer in chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers, however, knowledge about exposure to low-molecular-weight PAHs in relation to cancer risk is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate occupational exposure to the low-molecular-weight PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene in relation to different cancer biomarkers. Methods We recruited 151 chimney sweeps, 19 creosote-exposed workers and 152 unexposed workers (controls), all men. We measured monohydroxylated metabolites of phenanthrene and fluorene in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We measured, in peripheral blood, the cancer biomarkers telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number using quantitative PCR; and DNA methylation ofF2RL3andAHRRusing pyrosequencing. Results Median PAH metabolite concentrations were higher among chimney sweeps (up to 3 times) and creosote-exposed workers (up to 353 times), compared with controls (p<0.001; adjusted for age and smoking). n-ary sumation OH-fluorene (sum of 2-hydroxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyfluorene) showed inverse associations with percentage DNA methylation ofF2RL3andAHRRin chimney sweeps (B (95% CI)=-2.7 (-3.9 to -1.5) forF2RL3_cg03636183, and -7.1 (-9.6 to -4.7) forAHRR_cg05575921: adjusted for age and smoking), but not in creosote-exposed workers. In addition, n-ary sumation OH-fluorene showed a 42% mediation effect on the inverse association between being a chimney sweep and DNA methylation ofAHRRCpG2. Conclusions Chimney sweeps and creosote-exposed workers were occupationally exposed to low-molecular-weight PAHs. Increasing fluorene exposure, among chimney sweeps, was associated with lower DNA methylation ofF2RL3andAHRR, markers for increased lung cancer risk. These findings warrant further investigation of fluorene exposure and toxicity.

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